Vol. 49, Issue 4, pp. 627-640
observer variability, observer metamerism, cross-media color experiment, color-matching
We investigated observer metamerism under a variety of viewing conditions, in a set of color-matching experiments using displays and printed color samples under specific light sources. A selection was made of light sources with different illuminances, spectral power distributions, and correlated color temperatures, as well as displays with different sets of primaries. A panel of 157 observers with normal color vision and ages between 20 and 59 years old performed 5465 visual color matches around 9 different color centers. The results from the simulated and real experiments were quite different. Specifically, the mean color difference from the mean changed with experimental viewing conditions, ranging from 0.73 to 1.64 CIELAB units (average 0.99 CIELAB units) in simulated experiments, and from 3.12 to 4.03 CIELAB units (average 3.55 CIELAB units) in real experiments. In real experiments, observers’ variability reduced for light sources with high illuminance and high correlated color temperature. Spectral power distributions affected observer metamerism, but the role played by the primaries of the two displays employed was unclear.